Applications involving graphene-related materials (GRMs) are becoming very common, raising concerns for their environmental impact. GRMs induce various effects on plants, but those on the sexual reproduction are still largely unknown. Here, the effects of graphene oxide (GO) and GO purified from production residues (PGO) were tested in vivo on the stigma of Cucurbita pepo L. ssp. pepo ”Greyzini” (summer squash). Stigmas were exposed to GO or PGO for three hours and were then analyzed by environmental scanning electron microscopy to verify possible alterations to their surface. Stigmas were then hand-pollinated to verify the effects of the two GOs on pollen adhesion and germination on the stigma, and, subsequently, on the development of fruits and seeds. Severe damages to the stigma were not detected; nevertheless, both pollen adhesion and germination on the stigma decreased. Moreover, fruits developed defectively with signs of necrosis in the case of GO, whereas fruits did not ripen in the case of PGO and ovules did not develop seeds after both GOs treatments. These results highlight different mechanisms of interaction of the two materials with the pollen-stigma system, suggesting a possible negative impact of GO on the sexual reproduction of other seed plants.

The interaction of graphene oxide with the pollen−stigma system: In vivo effects on the sexual reproduction of Cucurbita pepo L.

Zanelli D.;Candotto Carniel F.
;
Tretiach M.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Applications involving graphene-related materials (GRMs) are becoming very common, raising concerns for their environmental impact. GRMs induce various effects on plants, but those on the sexual reproduction are still largely unknown. Here, the effects of graphene oxide (GO) and GO purified from production residues (PGO) were tested in vivo on the stigma of Cucurbita pepo L. ssp. pepo ”Greyzini” (summer squash). Stigmas were exposed to GO or PGO for three hours and were then analyzed by environmental scanning electron microscopy to verify possible alterations to their surface. Stigmas were then hand-pollinated to verify the effects of the two GOs on pollen adhesion and germination on the stigma, and, subsequently, on the development of fruits and seeds. Severe damages to the stigma were not detected; nevertheless, both pollen adhesion and germination on the stigma decreased. Moreover, fruits developed defectively with signs of necrosis in the case of GO, whereas fruits did not ripen in the case of PGO and ovules did not develop seeds after both GOs treatments. These results highlight different mechanisms of interaction of the two materials with the pollen-stigma system, suggesting a possible negative impact of GO on the sexual reproduction of other seed plants.
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Descrizione: Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at https://www.mdpi.com/article/10 .3390/app11136150/s1, Table S1: GLM results of pollen adhesion % in in vivo germination, Table S2: GLM results of fresh mass, length, maximum circumference of fruits and number of seeds produced per fruit.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/2993276
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