Carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains responsible for chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is mainly due to loss of the OprD protein and, limited to meropenem and doripenem, to overexpression of efflux pumps. However, recent reports of isolates showing inconsistent genotype-phenotype combinations (e.g., susceptibility in the presence of resistance determinants and vice versa) suggest the involvement of additional factors whose role is not yet fully elucidated. Among them, the OpdP porin as an alternative route of entry for carbapenems other than OprD and the overexpression of two chromosomal carbapenemases, the Pseudomonas-derived cephalosporinase (PDC) and the PoxB oxacillinase, have recently been reconsidered and studied in specific model strains. Here, the contribution of these factors was investigated by comparing different phenotypic variants of three strains collected from the sputum of colonized CF patients. Carbapenem uptake through OpdP was investigated both at the functional level, by assessing the competition exerted by glycine-glutamate, the OpdP's natural substrate, against imipenem uptake, and at the molecular level, by comparing the expression levels of opdP genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, overexpression of the chromosomal carbapenemases in some of the isolates was also investigated by qRT-PCR. The results showed that, even if OprD inactivation remains the most important determinant of carbapenem resistance in strains infecting the CF lung, the interplay of other determinants might have a nonnegligible impact on bacterial susceptibility, being able to modify the phenotype of part of the population and consequently complicating the choice of an appropriate therapy. IMPORTANCE This study examines the interplay of multiple factors in determining a pattern of resistance or susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, focusing on the role of previously poorly understood determinants. In particular, the impact of carbapenem permeability through OprD and OpdP porins was analyzed, as well as the activity of the chromosomal carbapenemases AmpC and PoxB, going beyond the simple identification of resistance determinants encoded by each isolate. Indeed, analysis of the expression levels of these determinants provides a new approach to determine the contribution of each factor, both individually and in coexistence with the other factors. The study contributes to understanding some phenotype-genotype discordances closely related to the heteroresistance frequently detected in P. aeruginosa isolates responsible for pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis patients, which complicates the choice of an appropriate patient-specific therapy.

Interplay of OpdP Porin and Chromosomal Carbapenemases in the Determination of Carbapenem Resistance/Susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Atrissi, Jad
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Milan, Annalisa
Investigation
;
Bressan, Raffaela
Investigation
;
Lucafò, Marianna
Supervision
;
Busetti, Marina
Supervision
;
Dolzani, Lucilla
Data Curation
;
Lagatolla, Cristina
Conceptualization
2021

Abstract

Carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains responsible for chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is mainly due to loss of the OprD protein and, limited to meropenem and doripenem, to overexpression of efflux pumps. However, recent reports of isolates showing inconsistent genotype-phenotype combinations (e.g., susceptibility in the presence of resistance determinants and vice versa) suggest the involvement of additional factors whose role is not yet fully elucidated. Among them, the OpdP porin as an alternative route of entry for carbapenems other than OprD and the overexpression of two chromosomal carbapenemases, the Pseudomonas-derived cephalosporinase (PDC) and the PoxB oxacillinase, have recently been reconsidered and studied in specific model strains. Here, the contribution of these factors was investigated by comparing different phenotypic variants of three strains collected from the sputum of colonized CF patients. Carbapenem uptake through OpdP was investigated both at the functional level, by assessing the competition exerted by glycine-glutamate, the OpdP's natural substrate, against imipenem uptake, and at the molecular level, by comparing the expression levels of opdP genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, overexpression of the chromosomal carbapenemases in some of the isolates was also investigated by qRT-PCR. The results showed that, even if OprD inactivation remains the most important determinant of carbapenem resistance in strains infecting the CF lung, the interplay of other determinants might have a nonnegligible impact on bacterial susceptibility, being able to modify the phenotype of part of the population and consequently complicating the choice of an appropriate therapy. IMPORTANCE This study examines the interplay of multiple factors in determining a pattern of resistance or susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, focusing on the role of previously poorly understood determinants. In particular, the impact of carbapenem permeability through OprD and OpdP porins was analyzed, as well as the activity of the chromosomal carbapenemases AmpC and PoxB, going beyond the simple identification of resistance determinants encoded by each isolate. Indeed, analysis of the expression levels of these determinants provides a new approach to determine the contribution of each factor, both individually and in coexistence with the other factors. The study contributes to understanding some phenotype-genotype discordances closely related to the heteroresistance frequently detected in P. aeruginosa isolates responsible for pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis patients, which complicates the choice of an appropriate patient-specific therapy.
29-set-2021
Pubblicato
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8557820/pdf/spectrum.01186-21.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8557820/
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/2998659
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