SARS-CoV-2 infection is often associated with severe inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia and impaired physical activity. These factors all together contribute to muscle wasting and fatigue. In addition, there is evidence of a direct SARS-CoV-2 viral infiltration into skeletal muscle. Aging is often characterized by sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity These conditions are risk factors for severe acute COVID-19 and long-COVID-19 syndrome. From these observations we may predict a strong association between COVID-19 and decreased muscle mass and functions. While the relationship between physical inactivity, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle dysfunction is well-known, the effects on muscle mass of COVID-19-related hypoxemia are inadequately investigated. The aim of this review is to highlight metabolic, immunity-related and redox biomarkers potentially affected by reduced oxygen availability and/or muscle fatigue in order to shed light on the negative impact of COVID-19 on muscle mass and function. Possible countermeasures are also reviewed.

Skeletal Muscle in Hypoxia and Inflammation: Insights on the COVID-19 Pandemic

Di Girolamo, Filippo G.
;
Fiotti, Nicola;Sisto, Ugo G.;Nunnari, Alessio;Vinci, Pierandrea;Schincariol, Paolo;Biolo, Gianni
2022-01-01

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 infection is often associated with severe inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia and impaired physical activity. These factors all together contribute to muscle wasting and fatigue. In addition, there is evidence of a direct SARS-CoV-2 viral infiltration into skeletal muscle. Aging is often characterized by sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity These conditions are risk factors for severe acute COVID-19 and long-COVID-19 syndrome. From these observations we may predict a strong association between COVID-19 and decreased muscle mass and functions. While the relationship between physical inactivity, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle dysfunction is well-known, the effects on muscle mass of COVID-19-related hypoxemia are inadequately investigated. The aim of this review is to highlight metabolic, immunity-related and redox biomarkers potentially affected by reduced oxygen availability and/or muscle fatigue in order to shed light on the negative impact of COVID-19 on muscle mass and function. Possible countermeasures are also reviewed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3018595
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