Tests using algae and/or cyanobacteria, invertebrates (crustaceans) and fish form the basic elements of an ecotoxicological assessment in a number of regulations, in particular for classification of a substance as hazardous or not to the aquatic environment according to the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS-CLP) (GHS 2022) and the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, EC 2006). Standardised test guidelines (TGs) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are available to address the regulatory relevant endpoints of growth inhibition in algae and cyanobacteria (TG 201), acute toxicity to invertebrates (TG 202), and acute toxicity in fish (TG 203). Applying these existing OECD TGs for testing two dimensional (2D) graphene nanoforms may require more attention, additional considerations and/or adaptations of the protocols, because graphene materials are often problematic to test due to their unique attributes. In this review a critical analysis of all existing studies and approaches to testing used has been performed in order to comment on the current state of the science on testing and the overall ecotoxicity of 2D graphene materials. Focusing on the specific tests and available guidance’s, a complete evaluation of aquatic toxicity testing for hazard classification of 2D graphene materials, as well as the use of alternative tests in an integrated approach to testing and assessment, has been made. This information is essential to ensure future assessments generate meaningful data that will fulfil regulatory requirements for the safe use of this “wonder” material.

Applicability of OECD TG 201, 202, 203 for the aquatic toxicity testing and assessment of 2D Graphene material nanoforms to meet regulatory needs

Candotto Carniel, F.;Tretiach, M.;Caorsi, G.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Tests using algae and/or cyanobacteria, invertebrates (crustaceans) and fish form the basic elements of an ecotoxicological assessment in a number of regulations, in particular for classification of a substance as hazardous or not to the aquatic environment according to the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS-CLP) (GHS 2022) and the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, EC 2006). Standardised test guidelines (TGs) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are available to address the regulatory relevant endpoints of growth inhibition in algae and cyanobacteria (TG 201), acute toxicity to invertebrates (TG 202), and acute toxicity in fish (TG 203). Applying these existing OECD TGs for testing two dimensional (2D) graphene nanoforms may require more attention, additional considerations and/or adaptations of the protocols, because graphene materials are often problematic to test due to their unique attributes. In this review a critical analysis of all existing studies and approaches to testing used has been performed in order to comment on the current state of the science on testing and the overall ecotoxicity of 2D graphene materials. Focusing on the specific tests and available guidance’s, a complete evaluation of aquatic toxicity testing for hazard classification of 2D graphene materials, as well as the use of alternative tests in an integrated approach to testing and assessment, has been made. This information is essential to ensure future assessments generate meaningful data that will fulfil regulatory requirements for the safe use of this “wonder” material.
20-dic-2022
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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2452074822000696
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3036499
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