Objective: The septum pellucidum is a virtual cavity located at the anterior part of the brain midline, which only in fetal life has a certain amount of fluid inside. The presence of an obliterated cavum septi pellucidi (oCSP) in the prenatal period is poorly described in the literature but, nevertheless, it constitutes an important clinical dilemma for the fetal medicine specialist in terms of significance and prognosis. Moreover, its occurrence is increasing maybe because of the widespread of high-resolution ultrasound machine. The aim of this work is to review the available literature regarding the oCSP along with the description of a case-report of oCSP with an unexpected outcome. Methods: A search of the literature through Pubmed was performed up to December 2022 with the aim to identify all cases of oCSP previously described, using as keywords "cavum septi pellucidi," "abnormal cavum septi pellucidi," "fetus," and "septum pellucidum." Along with the narrative review, we describe a case-report of oCSP. Results: A 39 years old woman was diagnosed with a nuchal translucency between the 95° and 99° centile in the first trimester and an oCSP and "hookshaped" gallbladder at 20 weeks. Left polymicrogyria was found at fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Standard karyotype and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were normal. After birth, the newborn presented signs of severe acidosis, untreatable seizures and multiorgan failure leading to death. A targeted gene analysis of the epilepsy panel revealed the presence of a de novo pathogenic variant involving the PTEN gene. The literature review identified four articles reporting on the oCSP of which three were case report and one was a case-series. The reported rate of associated cerebral findings is around 20% and the rate of adverse neurological outcome is around 6%, which is higher than the background risk of the general population. Conclusions: This case-report and review of the literature shows that oCSP is a clinical entity poorly described so far and that, despite the generally good prognosis, it requires caution in counseling. The diagnostic work-up should include neurosonography while fetal MRI may be always indicated for non-isolated cases only, depending on local facilities. Targeted gene analysis or whole exome sequencing may be indicated for non-isolated cases.

Obliterated cavum septi pellucidi: is it always a benign finding? A case report and narrative review of the literature

Fantasia, Ilaria
;
Faletra, Flavio;Bussani, Rossana;Ottaviani Giammarco, Chiara;Travan, Laura;Feresin, Agnese;Stampalija, Tamara
2023-01-01

Abstract

Objective: The septum pellucidum is a virtual cavity located at the anterior part of the brain midline, which only in fetal life has a certain amount of fluid inside. The presence of an obliterated cavum septi pellucidi (oCSP) in the prenatal period is poorly described in the literature but, nevertheless, it constitutes an important clinical dilemma for the fetal medicine specialist in terms of significance and prognosis. Moreover, its occurrence is increasing maybe because of the widespread of high-resolution ultrasound machine. The aim of this work is to review the available literature regarding the oCSP along with the description of a case-report of oCSP with an unexpected outcome. Methods: A search of the literature through Pubmed was performed up to December 2022 with the aim to identify all cases of oCSP previously described, using as keywords "cavum septi pellucidi," "abnormal cavum septi pellucidi," "fetus," and "septum pellucidum." Along with the narrative review, we describe a case-report of oCSP. Results: A 39 years old woman was diagnosed with a nuchal translucency between the 95° and 99° centile in the first trimester and an oCSP and "hookshaped" gallbladder at 20 weeks. Left polymicrogyria was found at fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Standard karyotype and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were normal. After birth, the newborn presented signs of severe acidosis, untreatable seizures and multiorgan failure leading to death. A targeted gene analysis of the epilepsy panel revealed the presence of a de novo pathogenic variant involving the PTEN gene. The literature review identified four articles reporting on the oCSP of which three were case report and one was a case-series. The reported rate of associated cerebral findings is around 20% and the rate of adverse neurological outcome is around 6%, which is higher than the background risk of the general population. Conclusions: This case-report and review of the literature shows that oCSP is a clinical entity poorly described so far and that, despite the generally good prognosis, it requires caution in counseling. The diagnostic work-up should include neurosonography while fetal MRI may be always indicated for non-isolated cases only, depending on local facilities. Targeted gene analysis or whole exome sequencing may be indicated for non-isolated cases.
2023
Pubblicato
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14767058.2023.2232075
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3051578
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