The innate immune system is crucial in fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, deepening our understanding of the underlying immune response mechanisms is fundamental for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The role of extra-oral bitter (TAS2Rs) and sweet (TAS1Rs) taste receptors in immune response regulation has yet to be fully understood. However, a few studies have investigated the association between taste receptor genes and COVID-19 symptom severity, with controversial results. Therefore, this study aims to deepen the relationship between COVID-19 symptom presence/severity and TAS1R and TAS2R38 (TAS2Rs member) genetic variations in a cohort of 196 COVID-19 patients. Statistical analyses detected significant associations between rs307355 of the TAS1R3 gene and the following COVID-19-related symptoms: chest pain and shortness of breath. Specifically, homozygous C/C patients are exposed to an increased risk of manifesting severe forms of chest pain (OR 8.11, 95% CI 2.26-51.99) and shortness of breath (OR 4.83, 95% CI 1.71-17.32) in comparison with T/C carriers. Finally, no significant associations between the TAS2R38 haplotype and the presence/severity of COVID-19 symptoms were detected. This study, taking advantage of a clinically and genetically characterised cohort of COVID-19 patients, revealed TAS1R3 gene involvement in determining COVID-19 symptom severity independently of TAS2R38 activity, thus providing novel insights into the role of TAS1Rs in regulating the immune response to viral infections.

The Bittersweet Symphony of COVID-19: Associations between TAS1Rs and TAS2R38 Genetic Variations and COVID-19 Symptoms

Santin, Aurora;Spedicati, Beatrice;Nardone, Giuseppe Giovanni;Concas, Maria Pina
;
Menini, Anna;Tirelli, Giancarlo;Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo;Girotto, Giorgia
2024-01-01

Abstract

The innate immune system is crucial in fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, deepening our understanding of the underlying immune response mechanisms is fundamental for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The role of extra-oral bitter (TAS2Rs) and sweet (TAS1Rs) taste receptors in immune response regulation has yet to be fully understood. However, a few studies have investigated the association between taste receptor genes and COVID-19 symptom severity, with controversial results. Therefore, this study aims to deepen the relationship between COVID-19 symptom presence/severity and TAS1R and TAS2R38 (TAS2Rs member) genetic variations in a cohort of 196 COVID-19 patients. Statistical analyses detected significant associations between rs307355 of the TAS1R3 gene and the following COVID-19-related symptoms: chest pain and shortness of breath. Specifically, homozygous C/C patients are exposed to an increased risk of manifesting severe forms of chest pain (OR 8.11, 95% CI 2.26-51.99) and shortness of breath (OR 4.83, 95% CI 1.71-17.32) in comparison with T/C carriers. Finally, no significant associations between the TAS2R38 haplotype and the presence/severity of COVID-19 symptoms were detected. This study, taking advantage of a clinically and genetically characterised cohort of COVID-19 patients, revealed TAS1R3 gene involvement in determining COVID-19 symptom severity independently of TAS2R38 activity, thus providing novel insights into the role of TAS1Rs in regulating the immune response to viral infections.
2024
Pubblicato
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10890446/
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3068621
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