β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is an abundant multi-domain plasma protein that plays various roles in the clotting and complement cascades. It is also the main target of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in the acquired coagulopathy known as Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). Previous studies have shown that β2GPI adopts two interconvertible biochemical conformations, oxidized and reduced, depending on the integrity of the disulfide bonds. However, the precise contribution of the disulfide bonds to β2GPI structure and function is unknown. Here, we substituted cysteine residues with serine to investigate how the disulfide bonds C32-C60 in domain I (DI) and C288-C326 in domain V (DV) regulate β2GPI's structure and function. Results of our biophysical and biochemical studies support the hypothesis that the C32-C60 disulfide bond plays a structural role, whereas the disulfide bond C288-C326 is allosteric. We demonstrate that absence of the C288-C326 bond, unlike absence of the C32-C60 bond, diminishes membrane binding without affecting the thermodynamic stability and overall structure of the protein, which remains elongated in solution. We also document that, while absence of the C32-C60 bond directly impairs recognition of β2GPI by pathogenic anti-DI antibodies, absence of the C288-C326 disulfide bond is sufficient to abolish complex formation in the presence of anionic phospholipids. We conclude that the disulfide bond C288-C326 operates as a molecular switch capable of regulating β2GPI's physiological functions in a redox-dependent manner. We propose that in APS patients with anti-DI antibodies, selective rupture of the C288-C326 disulfide bond may be a valid strategy to lower the pathogenic potential of aPL.

An allosteric redox switch in domain V of β2-glycoprotein I controls membrane binding and anti-domain I autoantibody recognition

Macor, Paolo
Methodology
;
2021-01-01

Abstract

β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is an abundant multi-domain plasma protein that plays various roles in the clotting and complement cascades. It is also the main target of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in the acquired coagulopathy known as Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). Previous studies have shown that β2GPI adopts two interconvertible biochemical conformations, oxidized and reduced, depending on the integrity of the disulfide bonds. However, the precise contribution of the disulfide bonds to β2GPI structure and function is unknown. Here, we substituted cysteine residues with serine to investigate how the disulfide bonds C32-C60 in domain I (DI) and C288-C326 in domain V (DV) regulate β2GPI's structure and function. Results of our biophysical and biochemical studies support the hypothesis that the C32-C60 disulfide bond plays a structural role, whereas the disulfide bond C288-C326 is allosteric. We demonstrate that absence of the C288-C326 bond, unlike absence of the C32-C60 bond, diminishes membrane binding without affecting the thermodynamic stability and overall structure of the protein, which remains elongated in solution. We also document that, while absence of the C32-C60 bond directly impairs recognition of β2GPI by pathogenic anti-DI antibodies, absence of the C288-C326 disulfide bond is sufficient to abolish complex formation in the presence of anionic phospholipids. We conclude that the disulfide bond C288-C326 operates as a molecular switch capable of regulating β2GPI's physiological functions in a redox-dependent manner. We propose that in APS patients with anti-DI antibodies, selective rupture of the C288-C326 disulfide bond may be a valid strategy to lower the pathogenic potential of aPL.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/2992286
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