Background: Diverse genetic backgrounds often lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in cardiomyopathies (CMPs). Previous genotype-phenotype studies have primarily focused on the analysis of a single phenotype, and the diagnostic and prognostic features of the CMP genotype across different phenotypic expressions remain poorly understood. Objectives: We sought to define differences in outcome prediction when stratifying patients based on phenotype at presentation compared with genotype in a large cohort of patients with CMPs and positive genetic testing. Methods: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, and biventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy were examined in this study. A total of 281 patients (80% DCM) with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were included. The primary and secondary outcomes were: 1) all-cause mortality (D)/heart transplant (HT); 2) sudden cardiac death/major ventricular arrhythmias (SCD/MVA); and 3) heart failure-related death (DHF)/HT/left ventricular assist device implantation (LVAD). Results: Survival analysis revealed that SCD/MVA events occurred more frequently in patients without a DCM phenotype and in carriers of DSP, PKP2, LMNA, and FLNC variants. However, after adjustment for age and sex, genotype-based classification, but not phenotype-based classification, was predictive of SCD/MVA. LMNA showed the worst trends in terms of D/HT and DHF/HT/LVAD. Conclusions: Genotypes were associated with significant phenotypic heterogeneity in genetic cardiomyopathies. Nevertheless, in our study, genotypic-based classification showed higher precision in predicting the outcome of patients with CMP than phenotype-based classification. These findings add to our current understanding of inherited CMPs and contribute to the risk stratification of patients with positive genetic testing.

Prognostic Prediction of Genotype vs Phenotype in Genetic Cardiomyopathies

Paldino, Alessia;Dal Ferro, Matteo
;
Stolfo, Davide;Gandin, Ilaria;Gigli, Marta;Gagno, Giulia;Zaffalon, Denise;Castrichini, Matteo;Masè, Marco;Cannatà, Antonio;Severini, Giovanni Maria;Lenarduzzi, Stefania;Girotto, Giorgia;Gasparini, Paolo;Bortolotti, Francesca;Giacca, Mauro;Zacchigna, Serena;Merlo, Marco;Sinagra, Gianfranco
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Diverse genetic backgrounds often lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in cardiomyopathies (CMPs). Previous genotype-phenotype studies have primarily focused on the analysis of a single phenotype, and the diagnostic and prognostic features of the CMP genotype across different phenotypic expressions remain poorly understood. Objectives: We sought to define differences in outcome prediction when stratifying patients based on phenotype at presentation compared with genotype in a large cohort of patients with CMPs and positive genetic testing. Methods: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, and biventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy were examined in this study. A total of 281 patients (80% DCM) with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were included. The primary and secondary outcomes were: 1) all-cause mortality (D)/heart transplant (HT); 2) sudden cardiac death/major ventricular arrhythmias (SCD/MVA); and 3) heart failure-related death (DHF)/HT/left ventricular assist device implantation (LVAD). Results: Survival analysis revealed that SCD/MVA events occurred more frequently in patients without a DCM phenotype and in carriers of DSP, PKP2, LMNA, and FLNC variants. However, after adjustment for age and sex, genotype-based classification, but not phenotype-based classification, was predictive of SCD/MVA. LMNA showed the worst trends in terms of D/HT and DHF/HT/LVAD. Conclusions: Genotypes were associated with significant phenotypic heterogeneity in genetic cardiomyopathies. Nevertheless, in our study, genotypic-based classification showed higher precision in predicting the outcome of patients with CMP than phenotype-based classification. These findings add to our current understanding of inherited CMPs and contribute to the risk stratification of patients with positive genetic testing.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3035020
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